What are Microaggressions?

While the term has been around since 1970, Merriam-Webster only recently added “microaggressions” to its dictionary. It’s defined as, “a comment or action that subtly and often unconsciously or unintentionally expresses a prejudiced attitude toward a member of a marginalized group.”  Merriam-Webster uses racial minorities as one example; however any marginalized group is vulnerable to microaggressions.

This January, APA Books released the paperback edition of That’s So Gay! Microaggressions and the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Community. In this book, Dr. Kevin Nadal explains how microaggressions affect the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Nadal describes microaggressions as the “New Face of Discrimination.” It has become unacceptable in the present day and age to openly voice and act on discrimination. Because of this, it can be commonplace for Americans in the majority to determine that they are not prejudiced, because they associate prejudice with the more outright forms of discrimination, such as hate crimes. However, they may not realize the ways in which their seemingly innocuous statements and behaviors can subtly harass or insult minorities.

Unlike blatant acts of discrimination, the motivations behind microaggressions are often ambiguous. Nadal uses the example of a White woman alone on an elevator who moves to the side and grabs her bag when joined by an African-American man. Nadal notes that there are several possible explanations for the woman’s action, but regardless of her intention, the man may suffer psychological stress as a result.

What can we do about microaggressions? Nadal gives several recommendations.  One location where microaggressions occur most often is in the workplace. It may be more difficult to confront microaggressions in this environment because of power dynamics and concerns over one’s employment status. It also raises the concern that one won’t be able to prove a microaggression to human resources representatives—or to convince them that such subtle interactions are worth investigating. Therefore, Nadal recommends that workplaces remain open to discussing microaggressions, and incorporating education about them in training and hiring opportunities.

 

References

Nadal, K. L. (2013). That’s so gay! http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/14093-000

Clara Hill on Consensual Qualitative Research

Clara E. Hill PhD is a professor of counseling psychology at the University of Maryland in College Park and one of the nation’s premier research psychologists. A former president of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, Dr. Hill is a recipient of the Society for the Advancement of Psychotherapy‘s Distinguished Psychologist Award.  She has authored or edited eleven books on psychotherapy and psychotherapy research, including the seminal textbook Helping Skills: Facilitating Exploration, Insight, and Action, now in its fourth edition .

In the video interview below, Dr. Hill discusses her book Consensual Qualitative Research: A Practical Resource for Investigating Social Science Phenomena, published by APA Books in 2012.  Consensual Qualitative Research, or CQR, is an inductive research method characterized by open-ended interview questions, small samples, a reliance on words over numbers, an emphasis on context, the integration of multiple viewpoints, and coming to a consensus within the research team. Hill discusses her motivations for writing Consensual Qualitative Research, and briefly describes the key attributes and comparative strengths of an approach that can generate rich descriptions of inner experiences, attitudes, and convictions.

A transcript of this video is available here.

Note: The opinions expressed in this interview are those of the authors and should not be taken to represent the official views or policies of the American Psychological Association.