APA Author Discusses Solitary Confinement

In “Last Days of Solitary,” a Frontline documentary that aired last month on PBS, professor and APA author Craig Haney talks about the history of solitary confinement in America, and efforts to decrease its use in the prison system.

Dr. Haney, who teaches at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has spent decades studying the psychological effects of imprisonment and other aspects of crime and punishment.  As a graduate student, he was one of the researchers on the 1971 Stanford Prison Experiment.  More recently, he testified before a Senate subcommittee during a hearing on solitary conferment.

He is the author of the APA book Reforming Punishment: Psychological Limits to the Pains of Imprisonment, and has contributed to APA journals, including Law and Human Behavior. 

In Reforming Punishment, Dr. Haney argues that the United States has pursued fundamentally flawed prison policies that don’t just impose punishment, but cause real and lasting harm. He uses modern psychological theory to challenge current prison practices and point to ways psychologists, policymakers, and others can help create a more effective and humane justice system.

Currently, Dr. Haney is working on a new book with APA about the nature of criminality. For more information about Dr. Haney and his work, click here.

Nancy Schlossberg: On Aging Gracefully

This is the latest in a series of interviews with APA Books authors. Here Andrew Gifford, Development Editor at APA Books, interviews Nancy Schlossberg, a well-known authority on aging and life after retirement.  Nancy will be speaking at Politics and Prose bookstore in Washington, DC (5015 Connecticut Ave NW), this Sunday, April 23, at 1:00pm to kick off the release of her new book, Too Young to Be Old: Love, Learn, Work, and Play as You Age. See more about the event here!

Note: The opinions expressed in this interview are those of the authors and should not be taken to represent the official views or policies of the American Psychological Association.

--Photo by Rod Millington

–Photo by Rod Millington

Nancy K. Schlossberg is an expert in the areas of adult transitions, retirement, career development, adults as learners, and intergenerational relationships. Past President of the National Career Development Association, Co-President of a consulting group TransitionWorks, she is a Professor Emerita, Department of Counseling and Personnel Services, College of Education at the University of Maryland.

Dr. Schlossberg has delivered more than 100 keynote addresses, and has been quoted in the cover story in USA Today, the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Sarasota Herald Tribune, Reader’s Digest, Family Circle, Better Homes and Gardens, U.S. News and World, Consumer Reports.  She has appeared on PBS In the Prime, Derek McGinty’s national talk radio show, CBS This Morning, CBS evening news and is featured in a 90-minute PBS Pledge Special June, 2007, “Retire Smart, Retire Happy.”

AG: In many ways, your latest book feels like part of an unofficial trilogy, starting with the smash hit Retire Smart, Retire Happy which provided a primer on how to adjust to retirement. It was followed by Revitalizing Retirement, which discussed how retirees could reshape their identity and play a vital role in their community.  Too Young to Be Old takes the lessons from the first two books and really emphasizes the idea that retirement is not an ending but a beginning. In it, you discuss relationships, finding your place, embracing adventure, and aging well. Could you tell us a little bit about your own experiences as an author, a psychologist, and a retiree who, herself, is aging very well throughout the process of writing these three books? Do you also see something of a “trilogy” here?

NS: I had not thought of the three books as a trilogy but now that I think about it, each book was an outgrowth of the other. So maybe it is a trilogy. It started with Retire Smart, Retire Happy. I had thought retirement would be a piece of cake. After all, I was an “expert” on transitions and had retired voluntarily. However, retirement for me posed unexpected challenges so I decided to learn how others fared. The result was Retire Smart, Retire Happy. That book became the centerpiece of a PBS special by the same name.

I had many opportunities to continue interviewing and learning about retirement. I realized there was another book which described the paths people follow and the need to strengthen their psychological portfolios. The result was Revitalizing Retirement. This book elaborated on what I had learned in Retire Smart, Retire Happy.

I then became involved in a number of aging projects including writing a transition column for a local magazine. Over time, I realized there was one more—the last—book to focus on aging. This new book broadened my concerns to cover more than retirement. And thus Too Young to be Old was born.

AG: Much of the inspiration for your writing on retirement and aging comes not just from your own experiences, but from the people you’ve worked with in your daily life. Especially after the first book came out, you’ve been engaged by fans and concerned retirees who have come to you with questions about what is often a difficult life transition. What are some of the encounters that have had the most impact on your philosophy and your writing?

NS: Perhaps the most important factor was my own transitions. I found the decade of my eighties filled with transitions—I retired, I became a caregiver, then a widow. I had several surgeries and orthopedic issues. I recovered, began dating and actually went on line, met a retired lawyer, and we now live together. We then moved to a retirement community.

All these transitions make the image of someone in a rocking chair fade.

In addition, many who read my columns reached out saying how they were helped. That made me realize I wanted to keep writing and sharing mine and others experiences.

AG: When Retire Smart, Retire Happy first came out, it coincided with your own decision to retire after nearly three decades teaching counseling psychology at the University of Maryland.  When did you start thinking about ways to retire and age well? Had this been on your mind even in your youth? Or was it your own life transition that spoke to you?

When I was in my late sixties, I went to a retirement party for a much older woman. She was still productive and dynamic. By accident, I left the party walking with two deans. One said, “She should have retired years ago. She is too old to teach and advise.” Right then and there, I knew I would leave before anyone said that about me. And thus began the process of disentangling first from teaching, then advising. My husband and I decided to move to Sarasota where we used to vacation. Since retiring, I have written 4 books and become active in the community. This year will be the first time I have not had a book contract since 1984. So now I will really be retired. I am a bit anxious about it. It is time to reread my own retirement books!

AG: What advice do you give retirees and the soon-to-be-retired about handling this difficult transition?

NS: If someone is struggling to figure out a new path, think about regrets. Is there anything the person wishes he or she had done? If so, is there any way to turn the regret into a plan? That can get someone thinking about a new dream, a new plan.

too young to be oldAG: Too Young to be Old is the first of your titles to really delve into the issue of ageism. America, certainly, is an aging nation. The number of Americans age 55 and older will increase dramatically between now and 2030 – from 60 million today (21 percent of the total US population) to 107.6 million (31 percent of the population) – as the baby boomers reach retirement age.   You’ve written these three books over the course of a decade. What changes have you seen in that time? Is ageism on the rise or the decline? How can individuals embrace aging, and combat ageism?

NS: Ageism is all around us. Even those who are demographically in the old or old-old group exhibit age bias. As the president of AARP wrote, we need to “disrupt aging.” The first step is to be honest about our own ageism, then confront others when they make derogatory comments like, “I live in an old person’s home,” “I just had a senior moment,” “Look at that old lady,” etc.

AG: Do you have some advice on how the children and grandchildren of retirees can help their elders age well and embrace life and happiness after the retirement transition?

NS: Family is very important to most older individuals. So it is important to stay connected. Many of the people I interviewed for Too Young to be Old resented their adult children “bossing” them. Therefore, give the benefit of the doubt to older individuals, give them as much freedom as possible, show respect and help them maintain their dignity.

AG: What is the best thing about aging?

NS: I love the freedom of being 87. I say my age with pride. I never expected to live this long and continue publishing. I like my white hair but must admit the wrinkles surprise and dismay me when I look in the mirror. It is important to remember George Vaillant’s advice–stay young at heart by learning something new, trying something different, and embracing the time you have to spend with family.

Christopher Keys: On Community Psychology

by Kristen Knight

Communities can assume many forms—from online forums to residential neighborhoods, from large collaborations to small groups of people. The APA Dictionary of Psychology, Second Edition, defines community psychology as a discipline “that encourages the development of theory, research, and practice relevant to the reciprocal relationships between individuals and the social systems that constitute the community context.” But these ideas may seem a bit abstract—so we consulted an expert in the field to put them in context.

Christopher B. Keys served on the editorial board of the APA Handbook of Community Psychology—released last October as part of the APA Handbooks in Psychology ® series—along with fellow Editors-in-Chief Meg A. Bond and Irma Serrano-García and Associate Editor Marybeth Shinn. The handbook spans two volumes, and contains 63 chapters contributed by dozens of authors from around the world. It was the first comprehensive work to be published in the field in more than 15 years. Here, Dr. Keys describes community psychology and talks about why it matters.

Note: The opinions expressed in this interview are those of the authors and should not be taken to represent the official views or policies of the American Psychological Association.

Chris Keys picture 2013

Christopher B. Keys, PhD, is a professor emeritus and former chair of the psychology departments at both the University of Illinois at Chicago and DePaul University. He has also been a founder and chair of the community psychology doctoral program in the psychology department at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and a professor and codirector of the advocacy and empowerment of minorities program in the department of disability and human development at the school. He was the founding associate dean for research in the college of science and health at DePaul University.

Dr. Keys’s research has focused on organizational approaches to community psychology, organizational empowerment, community research issues, and the positive community psychology of disability, and in addition to lecturing and conducting workshops all over the world, he has coauthored and coedited more than 125 articles, chapters, and books on community psychology and disability-related topics. 

KK: How do you define community psychology?

CK: Community psychology is the study of the relationship between person and context and the action taken to improve that relationship by creating a more socially just social contract. More specifically, community psychologists investigate and take action to support and empower persons who have less than their fair share of society’s resources and the variety of community contexts in which they live and by which they are influenced.

KK: How does community psychology apply in our day-to-day lives?

CK: Community psychology examines current social problems and develops constructive ways to address them. Consequently, community psychologists engage in research and action on a variety of important social issues, such as improving educational opportunities, preventing homelessness and enhancing the mental health of those people who are disadvantaged by virtue of society’s marginalization of members of selected groups. These include, but are not limited to, people with disabilities, people living in poverty, people with minority sexual orientations, people of color, and/or women. For example, if you are seeking to improve an after-school program in a low income neighborhood that enhances urban children’s wellbeing and academic performance, then consult relevant work on these issues in community psychology.

KK: What are some of the most important issues that the field is addressing today, and has this changed since the formal recognition of the field more than 50 years ago?

CK: In addition to the topics mentioned above, community psychology issues of particular import today that endure from early in the field’s history include

  • taking an ecological perspective to better grasp the context in which social problems develop and have impact;
  • thinking critically to challenge orthodoxy, such as the assumed preeminence of evidenced-based practice for assessing the quality of interventions; and
  • valuing participation of community members and those from other disciplines as well as partnerships with community organizations in research and action.

Some topics that have grown in importance over the last 50 years since

community psychology was formally established in the United States include (a) celebrating diversity in its many forms; (b) understanding the socioemotional side of community including the psychological sense of community, social capital, and social support; and (c) emphasizing human strengths and resilience in seeking to understand and empower those who face societal prejudice and discrimination.

KK: How do the author demographics and range of topics discussed in the handbook reflect the field?

CK: The handbook authors are a diverse group in terms of demographics, arena of work, and discipline. A notable number are from diverse disciplinary perspectives, nations, races and ethnicities, sexual orientations and career stages. In their diversity, the handbook authors represent the demographic richness of the field of community psychology in the 21st century. The topics addressed by the 63 chapters in 2 volumes include the theoretical foundations of community psychology, the dimensions of context, the methods for research and community change, approaches to social issues, working with diverse groups, emerging challenges, controversies and opportunities, and practical issues related to becoming and being a community psychologist. The handbook also includes topics suggested by experts consulted in an open meeting at the Fourth International Conference of Community Psychology in Barcelona in 2012, and by other thought leaders. Taken together, these topics, while not exhaustive, constitute the most comprehensive coverage of the field to date.

References

Bond, M. A., Serrano-García, I., & Keys, C. B. (Eds.-in-Chief), Shinn, M. (Assoc. Ed.). (2017). APA handbook of community psychology (Vols. 1–2). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2015). APA dictionary of psychology (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Fathali Moghaddam: On Nationalism & Government

Dr. Fathali Moghaddam - moghaddf@georgetown.edu  White Gravenor Hall, 3rd floor, 301A Georgetown University  Washington, DC 2005  cell: 301 919 3226  office: 202 687 3642. Portrait for APA Monitor

Portrait for APA Monitor: photo credit Lloyd Wolf

Dr. Fathali Moghaddam is a professor of psychology at Georgetown University and editor-in-chief of Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology.  He has published many books with APA over the years on a variety of topics, including:

  • His 2008 book Multiculturalism and Intergroup Relations: Implications for Democracy in the Global Context applied psychological theories to explore intergroup relations and conflicts across the globe, seeking effective ways to manage cultural diversity and avoid intergroup violence and terrorism in a rapidly globalizing world (for a video interview with the author on this book, click here).
  • His 2013 book The Psychology of Dictatorship asked: How do countries become dictatorships?  What social, political, and interpersonal dynamics create opportunities for despots to take and maintain control?  And how are dictatorships overthrown?
  • His most recent book, The Psychology of Democracy, explores political development through the lens of psychological science, examining the factors influencing whether and how democracy develops within a society.

Now, in the latest issue of APA’s Monitor on Psychology, Dr. Moghaddam discusses the recent rise in nationalism across the world as well as within the United States, as well as threats—both external and internal—to our American form of government. He also examines the critical role that psychologists can and must play in fostering the health and growth of a democratic society.  Check out the interview!

 

Pratyusha Tummala-Narra: On Psychoanalysis & Cultural Competence

This is the latest in a series of interviews with APA Books authors. For this interview, Andrew Gifford, Developmental Editor at APA Books, spoke with Pratyusha Tummala-Narra, professor of psychology at Boston College. Her book Psychoanalytic Theory and Cultural Competence in Psychotherapy won Honorable Mention at the 2017 PROSE Awards

Note: The opinions expressed in this interview are those of the authors and should not be taken to represent the official views or policies of the American Psychological Association.

usha tummala-narra photo

Pratyusha (Usha) Tummala-Narra received her Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology at Michigan State University. She is an Associate Professor in the Department of Counseling, Developmental and Educational Psychology at Boston College; a Teaching Associate in Psychiatry at the Cambridge Health Alliance/Harvard Medical School; and in Independent Practice in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Her research interests focus on the intersections of culture, race, gender, immigration, and trauma, and culturally informed psychotherapy practice. Her clinical scholarship has focused on psychoanalytic perspectives on the relationship between sociocultural context and identity and its influence on the therapeutic process.

AG: Congratulations on winning a PROSE Award!  Tell us a little bit about your inspiration for writing this title, and what you hope the book will achieve.

PT-N: Thank you! The book is a culmination of my clinical experience and research over the course of twenty years. I have worked with clients in psychotherapy who have taught me a great deal about the complexity of sociocultural context in their lives. They are the inspiration for me writing this book. Over the years, I had the opportunity to learn from mentors and scholars from psychoanalytic, multicultural, and feminist perspectives, all of which have influenced my understanding of cultural competence in practice. My hope in writing the book was to expand the ways in which cultural competence has been discussed in psychology. In particular, I wanted to bring to the foreground psychoanalytic concepts that are especially helpful in examining and addressing the depth of how sociocultural realities shape people’s experiences of themselves and their relationships, and conflict and distress. I hope that the book draws attention to an understanding of sociocultural issues in psychotherapy that underscores both the realities of context and the individual’s experience of this context as dynamic, fluid, and powerful.

AG: In 2012, in an article written for the Division 39 newsletter, you pointed out the “absence of dialogue” about race and called for psychoanalysts to offer insight into this neglected discussion. What role do you see for psychoanalytic theory in helping generate this dialogue?

PT-N: There is indeed an absence of constructive dialogue on race in psychology and in broader society. Race, unlike some other aspects of social context, evokes anxiety and grief for people of all racial backgrounds. Psychoanalytic theory can help us understand why it is so difficult for us to engage in honest dialogue about race, especially with people whom we perceive as racially and/or culturally different from us. A major area of interest within psychoanalytic theory concerns trauma and traumatic stress. The challenges we face in discussing race in the United

States at least in part stem from the fact that race and racism are traumatic both in the past and in the present, and much of how racism operates lies in the unconscious. Even when we perceive ourselves to be open-minded, we are socialized with messages regarding race from an early age, which then impact the ways we perceive our own social locations and those of others. Psychoanalytic theory helps us to recognize that we all have biases, stereotypes, and prejudice that lie outside of our conscious awareness, and that we struggle to hold tension with regard to our privilege and our marginalization. The theory can also help us begin to have more authentic dialogue about race through an understanding of individual and collective defenses, such as denial and projection, which serve to protect us from anxiety produced from talking about race and racism. Psychoanalytic theory also suggests that such dialogue requires witnessing and mourning the loss and trauma incurred through racism, which means that as a profession, we need to create spaces where people with different experiences with race can engage with each other by listening attentively to each other. Interestingly, although it is assumed that psychologists are good listeners, we sometimes are limited in the ways that we listen when we become defensive despite our good intentions. Psychoanalytic theory helps us to think more about our own role as listeners in the context of race.

AG: Psychoanalysis has become old-fashioned in many people’s eyes, perhaps due in part to its origins within the European, doctor-patient tradition.  What does psychoanalysis offer—both generally and for multicultural populations specifically —that other, younger approaches do not?    

Psychoanalysis does have a history of neglecting issues of sociocultural context. However, over the past twenty years, psychoanalytic scholars have moved away from an understanding of intrapsychic life as unaffected by sociocultural context. Increasingly, psychoanalytic psychologists and psychoanalysts have been concerned with how sociocultural issues and social oppression influence people’s intrapsychic and relational life. These scholars are also interested in how early experiences within one’s family and community can shape later experiences with their social contexts and relationships with others. Contemporary psychoanalytic perspectives assume that there is a bidirectional influence between the context and the individual. For example, two people of the same ethnicity may have different feelings about a similar cultural context, even though they may also have some shared experiences. Psychoanalysis offers an important lens into why people experience a particular aspect of diversity in certain ways by considering the influence of unique life experiences and unconscious processes associated with these experiences. These developments within psychoanalysis have a great deal to offer our understanding of cultural competence in psychotherapy. It is important that psychologists consider that cultural competence involves a process of understanding various dimensions of a person’s life, including his/her unconscious life (e.g., wishes, conflicts, defenses, fantasies, dreams), as they have tremendous impact on how he/she experiences the self and others and how he/she responds to stress and conflict.

AG: What advice do you have for psychology students today who are interested in pursuing psychoanalytic training?   

My hope is that psychology students are open and excited to learn about psychoanalytic theory and its contributions to understandings of cultural competence in psychotherapy. Unfortunately, in many training programs in psychology, students are not exposed to psychoanalytic theory. I encourage students to advocate for more exposure to psychoanalytic ideas in their training. Students are typically working with clients who are coping with multiple forms of stress, often situated within systemic oppression (e.g., poverty, racism, sexism, homophobia, transphobia, ableism). The opportunity to learn about how clients experience and cope with oppression both intrapsychically and interpersonally would benefit students as they develop formulations and techniques to engage effectively with their clients. The dynamics of issues of diversity are also evident in students’ relationships with their supervisors and faculty, and psychoanalytic theory can offer a lens into understanding impasses that may occur in these relationships as well.